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Each key is unique, and is used to locate the corresponding value. Using a key-value pair for the first time adds that pair to the associative array.
Then, you can use the variables $username, $password and $database throughout your scripts without having to define them every time.
Also, if you ever change this information, for example if you move to another web host, there is only one file to change.
The various software systems used to maintain relational databases are known as a relational database management system (RDBMS).
Virtually all relational database systems use SQL (Structured Query Language) as the language for querying and maintaining the database.